Wednesday, August 31, 2016

upanishads, selected fragments

About this (atman) only one can say “not… not” (neti, neti). He is ungraspable, he is undecaying, he has nothing sticking to him, he is not bound."


"Without me here, to know experience, how could this experience be? And how do I continue on? If it’s by speech that words are said, if odours are perceived by smell … if sights are seen by sense of vision, sounds are heard by sense of hearing, feelings felt by sense of touch, and thoughts conceived by changing mind … if thoughts and sense-perceptions are absorbed within by understanding, and appearances are formed by mind’s expressive thoughts and acts… then who, or what, am I?"
"Brahman is OM, the whole world is OM. When one says OM, it indicates compliance."

"With respect to the bodily sphere (atman), one should venerate: ‘Brahman is the mind."

"The Self is a source of abiding joy. Our hearts are filled with joy in seeing him. Enshrined in the depths of consciousness. If he were not there, who would breathe? He fills every heart with joy." (Bhakti)
"I’m here: in every passing season, in the cycling of the seasons risen from their background source, continuing through space and time. I am the seed of consciousness that’s always here in all experience: lighting every passing moment, common to all different moments, changeless through all changing time. I am each being’s real self, the truth of all reality. This truth is immanent in all that is perceived: as that which is, unmixed with mere appearances attributed by sense and mind. This truth also transcends whatever is perceived: as that which knows, as unconditioned consciousness, the common, knowing principle from which all sense and mind arise. Thus seen ‘out there’ and found ‘in here’, truth is complete reality: from known everywhere, in everything"
"I am the sustenance consumed by all the world of changing things. Yet into me all changing things and all the world become consumed.From me, each of them issues forth, with all their ordered functioning. I am their deathless origin: their common, underlying source. Whoever freely gives of me, is only thus accepting me. I, who thus seem to be consumed, am just the unaffected ground where all consuming is consumed. Transcending all the changing world, I’m unconditioned, knowing light."
CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD (The universe is found on two principles, rita (order) and yajna (sacrifice)
"The Universe comes from Brahman, exists in Brahman, and will return to Brahman. Verily, all is Brahman."

"The Self, who can be realized by the pure in heart, who is life, light, truth, space, who gives rise to all works, all desires ... this is the Self dwelling in my heart."
"Our bodies, senses and our minds keep changing in a changing world. And so, whatever they perceive is by its nature changeable. But, as this change keeps going on, how is it known that things have changed? How can something be compared with what it was before it changed? Where variation is perceived, what is it that knows the change of passing states which come and go? It must be there before the change, to know the state that was before. And it must still be there when change has taken place, to know what has become of what was there before. Wherever there is variation, that which knows must carry on through changing states that come and go. Each state gives way to other states, but that which knows the change remains. This knowing principle remains unchanged, unvarying: through all the change and all the variations body, sense and mind perceive. Whatever is perceived must vary; that which knows is never changed."
"Reality is nothing else but consciousness, the real self that each of us calls “I”."
"All misery and want arise from incomplete experience, where self seems somehow incomplete from for want of something it desires. Ego claiming to be body lives in bondage to the world. Ego claiming to be mind lives in bondage to desire. All that mind and body do gets undone in course of time. When an object is desired, ego feels that self is lacking something to be found outside. Consciousness thus seems divided; mind appears, dissatisfied. But where reality and self are realized as only one; there incompleteness can’t arise, nor misery, nor want, nor death."
"With respect to the bodily sphere (atman), one should venerate: ‘Brahman is the mind’, and with respect to the divine sphere: ‘Brahman is the space’.

"You who know this Self here, the one common to all men..."
"Self is the continuity that lives unchanged through change; it is the bridge that joins all differences. And yet, it also is the basis of discrimination, by which different things are told apart."
"As a tethered bird grows tired of flying about in vain to find a place to rest and settles at last on its own perch, so the mind, tired of wandering about hither and tither, settles down at last in the self, dear one, to which is bound."  
KENA UPANISHAD (kena means "by whom", a sort of endless investigation)
"The Self is the ear of the ear, the eye of the eye, the mind of the mind, rising above the senses and the mind... renouncing separate existence, the wise realize the deathless Self."
"What motivates mind’s changing show of seeming objects, thoughts, desires? What makes the mind go out to things that seem to be outside itself? What sends the mind, in soaring flight, to search for freedom, happiness? From what does mind come down again, to earth: where joy seems always bound to pettiness and suffering? What joins together various acts – of body, sense and mind – to make each person’s individual life? From what does meaning come: into the things we do, the words we speak, the gestures that our bodies make? Those who are brave break free from world’s appearances, and realize that self is unmixed consciousness: beyond all seeming change and death."
"There is only one way to know the Self, and that is to realize it yourself."

"That which is the hearing behind the hearing, the thinking behind the thinking, the speech behind the speech, the sight behind the sight, the breathing behind the breathing. Freed completely from these, the wise become immortal, then they depart from this world. Sight does not reach there, neither does thinking or speech."
KATHA UPANISHAD (an encounter of Nachiketa i.e, "that which is unperceived," with death)*
"What one cannot express by speech, by which speech itself is expressed –learn that alone is Brahman."

"The whole created universe is made of living energythat moves and oscillates and shines. This boundless store of restless cosmic energy has terrible destructive power. It’s like an upraised thunderbolt: to petty ego’s fragile life, identified with little body, sense and mind."
"What’s true in here is true out there. What’s there, in truth, is also here. Truth is the same, both here and there. Wherever differences are seen, perceiving ego suffers change and thus goes on from death to death. But when mind turns back to its source, it knows itself as consciousness, unmixed with any other thing. And then it is quite evident that, though appearances differ, reality remains the same. from No difference is really there."
"For knowledge that agrees, I am. For knowing contrary, I am. I am the knowing principle that’s common to all different views and carries on through changing time: as differing perceptions join in unity of single truth; as differences are told apart, from thus knowing truth from falsity."
"When mind and senses cease to act, no seeming object can appear. Then, consciousness shines out alone, unmixed with those appearances that make it seem what it is not.This state of unmixed consciousness is said to be the highest state; and meditation is the art of holding mind and senses back to reach this state by act of will. Thus, turning will towards a state where all distractions are dissolved, attention turns to consciousness: which shines in all appearances, and shines alone when they dissolve. But when this state has passed away, appearances return again; and consciousness then seems obscured just as it seemed to be before. How can pure consciousness be known for what it is, unmoved, unchanged: no matter what distractions rise; no matter what is seen or heard, smelled, tasted, touched or thought or felt; no matter what seems to appear from to changing body, mind and sense?"
"Finer than the finest, larger than the largest is the self (atman) that lies hidden in the heart of the living being. Without desires and sorrows a man perceives by the creator’s grace the grandeur of the self."

"Higher than the sense is the mind. Higher than the mind is the essence. Higher than the essence is the immense self. Higher than the immense self is the unmanifest."
"The Self is ONE, ever still, the Self is swifter that thought..."

"The Self is everywhere. Bright is the Self. Indivisible, untouched by sin, wise, immanent and transcendent. He holds the cosmos together."

"The real self, in each of us, is stainless, undecaying, free from hunger, free from thirst, untroubled in the midst of grief. It has no thought nor wish, but truth. This is the self we cannot help but seek, the truth we seek to understand. Whoever sees and knows this self gains all the world, and finds the goal of all desires." "Where body’s world dissolves in dream and mind is free, the self shines there. It is the deathless, fearless absolute."
"Although not moving, the ONE is swifter than the mind, the gods cannot catch it, as it speeds on in front. Standing, it outpaces others who run. It moves, yet it does not move. It’s far away –yet it’s near at hand! It is within this whole world –yet, it’s also without the whole world."
SVETASVARA UPANISHAD (the Svetasvara is a paean of ecstasy to the self, the reality behind the gunas). What's the entanglement here? maya, i.e, appearance, the universe as neither real nor unreal.
"You are a woman, you are a man, you are a boy; also a girl. As an old man you totter along with a walking stick. As you’re born you turn your face in every direction. You are the dark blue bird, the green one with red eyes, the rain-cloud, the seasons, and the oceans. You live as one without a beginning because of your pervasiveness, you, whom all beings have been born."
 "The mind is harnessed to the senses like a chariot pulled along by untamed horses running wild. And it can only be controlled, held steady on an even course, by one who stands as consciousness: unexcited, undisturbed."
"Just as the energy of fire is latent in a piece of fuel; so too the subtle energies of life and mind are latent in gross forms of body, seen by sense as pieces of an outside world. And just as fuel may be set alight, by focused friction or by concentrated sparks or flame; so too the subtle powers of life and mind may be made manifest by meditative practices: which concentrate intensity within, thus setting flame to latent energies that are not noticed in the ordinary course of outward life in seeming world.These latent powers are called ‘divine’ when they are used to take the mind, beyond its usual limitations, to that principle of light where every limit disappears and all the powers of mind dissolve, in unconditioned consciousness."
"Behind all actions in the world are the perceptions they express. Behind perceptions of the world is the attention of the mind, which turns from one thing to the next. Behind the changing mind is this one living principle of truth: one unconditioned consciousness, which stays the same while mind is changed from one appearance to the next. This changeless principle of truth is always here, in each of us. It is the centre of all life, from which all seeming faculties of body, sense and mind arise. It has no needs, makes no demands; it never suffers want or lack; it does not ask for anything. And yet, spontaneously, unasked, all that is done is done for it."
"What cannot be seen, what cannot be grasped, without color, without sight or hearing, without hands or feet. What is eternal and all-pervading, extremely minute, presently everywhere. This is the immutable, which the wise fully perceive."

"Nor by sense, not by sight, nor by any other sense, nor by austerity or rite, is he grasped. Rather the partless one is seen by a man as he meditates when his being has become pure through the lucidity of knowledge."
*The sound Om! is the syllable of the supreme Brahman The Self, whose symbol is Om is the same as the omnipresent Brahman. Smaller than the smallest and larger than the largest, the Self is formless and all-pervading. The goal of the wise is to know this Self. The Self is like a rider; the horses are the senses, which he guides through the maze of desires. After death, it is the Self that remains; the Self is immortal. Mere reading of the scriptures or intellectual learning cannot realize Self. One must discriminate the self from the body, which is the seat of desire. Inability to realize Brahman results in one being enmeshed in the cycle of rebirths. Understanding the Self leads to moksha.

topics for your paper proposal

1- Factory farms & animal welfare
2- Same-sex marriage
3- Government surveillance
4- Fast Food
5- Social Media
6- Robot ethics

Friday, August 26, 2016

your turn #1 (updated with today's class)

art by kajahl benes

welcome to my class.

this is going to be your first post for comment.

here are some of what we've talked in class:

1- master/slave dialectic in the case of the syncretism in hinduism. i made the point that hinduism is a pottage of tendencies and practices.

2- getting our metaphors right when talking about big things. we need to know what we're talking about, there are real things, and there are metaphors to recontextualize these things. for example, "soul" for me is not real, but metaphoric. it doesn't matter, i still talk about it and make use of it, but you know what i mean. 

3- so far these categories in hinduism:

kharma, universal cause effect. you reap what you sow.
samsara, a cosmic principle. not easy to grasp. it means the same and the different at once.
dukkha, i made the point in class that suffering is essential for hinduism. without suffering there is no spiritual growth. this is the redemptive aspect of hinduism to the idea of suffering.
atman/brahman, a difficult concept. we'll be grappling with it throughout the semester.  is it one? is it two? it's both.
yajna, sacrifice. you give of yourself in exchange for something or someone, that's the first idea of yajna, then comes the second more powerful idea: sacrifice for its own sake. we're not there yet, we need to read from the bhagavad gita.

i've linked these to wikipedia articles (which i think are quite good). in your 150-word comment you can take any tangent you want, while keeping focused on one of these themes. try to make your comment informed, and interesting. you can take a look at these previous comment boxes made by my last phi 2070 class, here and here.

update: today we added mayabhakti and ineffability.

go ahead!

to make a comment 

click at the bottom of this post where it says "post a comment." you will get a box, after you are done with your comment sign it at the bottom of your comment (even if you have a google alias). click "anonymous" (unless you have a google account with your alias). i advise you to write your comment first on word and copy and paste it to the comment box in case it gets lost (this has happened to students whom lost the whole comment). click i'm not a robot and click "publish your comment." by the way, you can preview your comment before you publish it.

if you have any questions, let me know via email ( or call me. good luck.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

four upanishadian themes

Samsara: the idea that after we die our soul will be reborn again in another body. Perhaps in an animal, perhaps as a human, perhaps as a god, but always in a regular cycle of deaths and resurrections.

Karma: means “action”, the idea that all actions have consequences, good or bad. Karma determines the conditions of the next life, just like our life is conditioned by our previous karma. There is no judgement or forgiveness, simply an impersonal, natural and eternal law operating in the universe. Those who do good will be reborn in better conditions while those who are evil will be reborn in worse conditions.

 Dharma: means “right behaviour” or “duty”, the idea that we all have a social obligation. Each member of a specific caste has a particular set of responsibilities, a dharma. For example, among the Kshatriyas (the warrior caste), it was considered a sin to die in bed; dying in the battlefield was the highest honour they could aim for. In other words, dharma encouraged people of different social groups to perform their duties the best they could.

 Moksha: means “liberation” or release. The eternal cycle of deaths and resurrection can be seen as a pointless repetition with no ultimate goal attached to it. Seeking permanent peace or freedom from suffering seems impossible, for sooner or later we will be reborn in worse circumstances. Moksha is the liberation from this never ending cycle of reincarnation, a way to escape this repetition. But what would it mean to escape from this cycle? What is it that awaits the soul that manages to be released from samsara? To answer this question we need to look into the concept of atman and Brahman.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Notes on Hinduism

Hinduism is a potage of philosophies. It's simultaneously a religion, a developed cultural tradition and a social structure. So, it grows in all directions. 

Hinduism has an amazing capacity for holding together a variety of spiritual cultural and social traditions. The best way to study Hinduism as a process, i.e., a tradition in constant development. 

There are three important changes 

1- the arrival of the Aryan peoples (around 2000 B.C.), 

2- the rise of the sectarian religions of Vaishnavism and Shaivism 

3- the development of Hinduism during the 19th Century, when Western influences poured into India. 

The early period results from the interaction of the Aryan and non-Aryan tradition (Jainism), which are the two basic components of Hinduism. The non-Aryans represent the primordial traditions of India. In fact one can see Hinduism as the Indianization of these traditions (i.e. non-Aryans gradually modified the Aryan elements. One can see a similarity in the interpenetration of Hellenistic and Christian traditions in the West).

Non-Aryan component

In Hinduism there is a world-negative aspect that seems opposed to the influence of the Aryan conqueror. One perceives this attitude opposing delight in life, which is found in the Vedic Hymns that can be very difficult to understand if one doesn't see the phenomenon from a historic perspective. 

This devaluation of the world as non-being, as confinement, as meaningless, as a source of confusion or duhkha (suffering) is the most significant aspect of the entire spiritual development of India. These are also felt in Buddhism, but more so in Jainism which is really non-Aryan. So, in a sense one can say that the Hindu achievement consists in interpreting and transforming their historic situation into an existential compass of the human condition.

Nowhere in the civilization of the Eurasian world was the objective world seen as more oppressive and alienating. We are affected not only by the afflictions of the external world, but even more by the inner limitations of our own being (this worldview was ultimately accepted by the Aryans).

(Read more here)

right use of metaphors

metaphor is an important tool of worldmaking. a metaphor is an analogy. the Greek (μεταφορά) metaphorá means "transfer," to "carry over." a metaphor is more forceful (active) than an analogy, because metaphor asserts two things are alike, whereas analogy implies a difference.

metaphor has powerful cognitive binding.

miracles? myths? all metaphors. if we see it that way, it helps see the world as a construction.

for instance, imagine thoughts as autonomous agents, with posture and dignity (i.e, they understand their place and time). they are produced by our brains, but they have a sort of independent existence.

was zero discovered or invented?

by our constant reevaluations, given newer contexts, metaphorization helps enhancing our world.

why is this helpful? imagine a new violin. the sound of a new violin is pretty dull. it needs playing. the playing "cures" the wood. after years of playing, the inside (resonance box) becomes aware!
back to eastern philosophy: in the taittiriya upanishad the body is presented as the first of many layers that surround the human personality, each less physical than the one before. like an onion. as one peels layers upon layers, one gets more subtle, more independent and more dependent. more particular and yet, more general.

the core is the atman. the ONE.

w'll be looking at this metaphor for some time.

environing nature with a little help from poetry

brahman is nature,
nature is everything there is
man is nature and brahman.
but man destroys nature
so, man  destroys himself
did man learned from brahman?
for IT being nature destroys nature and man
thus, brahman destroys itself
what's the riddle?

we cannot lie to ourselves pretending that we live in this safety tiny isle outside the relationship of the oneness of nature.

nature is everything there is. everything.

a more honest relationship between human & nature means recognizing that we are also nature.

what nature? do we even know how to look around? do we really see nature or do we see ourselves outside?

i propose environing as learning to weave one-with-another. let's begin with understanding what's difficult.

the so called unpleasant & unsightly in nature. the different, the awkward, unattractive, the queer. people are definitely afraid of the ugly duck.

or the frightful (the putrid smell of the marshes, abandoned animal carcasses in the countryside, sulfide vapors coming up from the earth's bowels. and death?

lord byron (who is not afraid of death) has this to say:

The world was void,
The populous and the powerful was a lump,
Seasonless, herbless, treeless, manless, lifeless,
A lump of death, a chaos of hard clay.
The rivers, lakes, and ocean stood still,
And nothing stirred within their silent depths;
Ships sailorless lay rotting on the sea,
And their masts fell down piecemeal; as they dropp'd
They slept on the abyss without a surge
The waves were dead; the tides were in their grave,
The moon their mistress had expired before;
The winds were withered in the stagnant air,
And the clouds perish'd; Darkness had no need
Of aid from them. She was the universe.

or baudelaire, in fleurs du mal:

Je veux dormir! dormir plutôt que vivre!
Dans un sommeil aussi doux que la mort,
J'étalerai mes baisers sans remords
Sur ton beau corps poli comme le cuivre.

I wish to sleep! to sleep rather than live!
In a slumber doubtful as death,
I shall remorselessly cover with my kisses
Your copper-like polished body.

how about insects (our misunderstood enemies?). let's begin with ants, perhaps one of the smartest and most sociable insect. roaches? we each have our own critter-phobias.

why this insistence of looking at the ugly?  if we want to comprehend nature we must learn how really to look at the whole of it. 

suggested homework for all of us: on our way home let's embrace and kiss a tree! 

feel its trunk, passive ebullient energy. now think of sending a good karma throughout the universe. not to your friend, sister, pet, remembrance. go fly high.  

to the universe!      

PHI 2070 Eastern Philosophy Syllabus (in process)

illustration by RLon

Alfredo Triff, Ph.D.
Room 3604-37
Tel. 305.237.7554
Office Hours: Posted
Text: My own handouts + Upanishads, Baghavadgita, Dhamapada, Analects, Lao-Tzu, I Ching, etc.


Phi 2070, or Eastern Philosophy consists of a survey of the different philosophical systems from India & China, plus the development of Zen Buddhism in the Far East.

In the East, philosophy is a way of life. This does not mean that our Western ideas of truth, reason and logic are not pursued in the East. Perhaps the most important characteristic of eastern philosophy is the awareness of the unity and mutual interrelation of all things and events, the experience of all phenomena in the universe as manifestations of a basic oneness.


To become familiar with historical and contemporary trends in the philosophies of the East. We take a look at the cosmogony, epistemology, metaphysics and ethics of these systems. The perennial question: Can we become better by absorbing these teachings?


1. Grades: A, B and C stand for outstanding, good and average respectively. D is below average. F means not enough work to justify credit for the course.
2. Testing: There are 3 tests, which count for about 70% of the final grade. I will let you know the material to be tested a week in advance. Tests are simple: fill-in the blanks kind of questions.
3. Posting: weekly 150-word-comments to different weekly posts on this blog (for a 20% of the final grade). These comments are important. They allow us to ponder the issues more specifically and expanding beyond the class time. Your comments are discussed in the following class and so on.
4. Participation: The remaining 10% is for class participation (this breakdown reflects a qualitative approximation).
5. Attendance: Two unexcused absences are permitted. Each unexcused absence thereafter will lower the participation grade by half a letter. Missing quizzes must be justified by a doctor's note or the equivalent. Please, send me an email if you have a problem, suggestion, etc.


1. We expect a minimum of class demeanor. Courtesy and respect are important. 2. In Philosophy discussions are essential. Be ready to share your point of view without any fear. As long as you are respectful and empathetic you can say what you want. After you talk, listen.



Weeks 1-3: Hinduism 

Weeks 4-5: Jainism 

Weeks 6-7: Yoga

Weeks 8-9: Buddhism 

Mid-term on philosophies of India.


Weeks 10-11: Confucianism 

Weeks 12-13:Taoism 

Week 13: The Yin-yang School

Weeks 14-16: Zen 

Final Exam

how to build good student behaviors

you want to be a good student. to be a good student you have to learn how to program yourself. these programs are called student behaviors.

you understand the idea of a program. there are good and bad programs.

a good program solves a problem, improves functionality, enhances self-defense. 
a bad program makes things worse by adding unnecessary problems to existing problems.

your life is now a program.

we all come "already programmed." this is what people call "baggage": DNA, behavioral dispositions, psychosomatic products and byproducts (parents, neighborhood, school peers, associations, physico-biological outcomes of previous dispositions and interactions with the environment, etc).

imagine each moment of your life as "inputs" of your overall life "program" being automatically realized into all the different social tasks you are engaged into as "subprograms" for instance, being a student, a worker, a father, a friend, a brother, etc.

let's talk now about bad programs. they:

1- overwhelm the host and the system,
2- reduce functionality, and therefore, 
3- worsen security, usability, maintainability, productivity, predictability, quality, etc

you don't want this.

running the best program is your most important goal. 

have you not felt some times so ridden with bad "subprograms" that your life was about to "crash"?

i have.

on the other hand, our lives necessarily run with many bad subprograms ("bad code" we come with, for example: genes, parents, social conditioning, etc.

at any moment, when one less expects it, a bug appears, making our overall life program miserable. this is a design problem we all come with. don't panic.


constantly debugging and testing our overall functionality. 

grade wise: moving from a C to a B

it means better functionality. it means better student behaviors and overall self-sufficiency. remember we don't have a programmer debugging our programs, we have to do it ourselves!

let's talk about a "good student" program.

this is the best program you can build for yourself. but you need patience and follow instructions.

let's translate this into class/behaviors for our PHI 2010 class:

1- punctuality, (in program: 9am means 8:50 am),
2- attendance, (in program: zero absences as goal),
3- hard work: homeworks and assignments, (in program: understanding homeworks, turning assignments on time, etc), 
4- participation (in program: being publicly proactive with your knowledge), 
5- leadership, (in program: helping not only yourself, but also your classmates succeed ), 
6- productivity (in program: studying conscientiously for your tests to achieve A's and B's).  
7- sustainability, (learn to detect your own "bug" on time and seek help). 

a "good student" subprogram can only help your "life program." isn't is obvious?

Monday, August 15, 2016

Philosophy Club Constitution

Wolfson Philosophy Club (WPC) Preamble:

We, the members of Miami Dade College from WPC, hereby associate ourselves to: Create an open environment in which thought-provoking philosophical debate can be held. Furthermore, we will organize talks with diverse guest speakers, as well as field trips and events. This will be done in order to promote the globalization of mind-sets and the love of knowledge.

Article I. Name of Organization: The name of the organization will be: (WPC: Wolfson Philosophy Club)

Article II. Objectives:
Section 1: The purpose of this club is to to stimulate philosophical conversation in a democratic fashion. Members will suggest issues to be addressed; based on suggestions and/or criticisms, the president will stipulate what to do next.
Section 2: Since much of philosophy is about arguments, all disagreements shall be treated in a civilized manner. There will be a forum (physical or virtual) for suggestions to be examined by the president and the secretary; suggestions should be aired and confronted.
Section 3: The club will host and organize presentations, meetings with guest speakers, field trips, and food related events in order to promote the mission as mentioned in the preamble.
Section 4: During meetings, members and officers will discuss and debate their beliefs of knowledge, ethics, sexuality, reality, religion, and etc. Topics will be very fluid. 

Article III. Membership:
Section 1: The membership of this organization will be open to anyone interested.
Section 2: A quorum of membership for voting purposes will be reached when 2/3 (66%) of regular members are present.
Section 3: To consciously believe that one is a member of WPC is to be a member.
Section 4: Nominations for leadership roles will take place the second week of each new semester. Section 5: Installation of new officers will take place the second week of each new semester.
Section 6: Votes will be counted by the faculty advisor, Professor Alfredo Triff.

Article IV. Removal of Officers:
Section 1: If an officer is becoming inactive in his/her assigned position, not attending meetings and reflecting lack of responsibility towards WPC, then that officer can be removed from his/her position. Section 2: Any member may bring charges against an officer or director by filing them in writing with the secretary of the association, together with a petition signed by twenty percent of the members, requesting the officer’s or director’s removal. The removal shall be voted upon at the next regular or special meeting of the association. By an affirmative vote of no less than two-thirds of the votes entitled to cast by members present in person, or by proxy and voting, the association may remove such officer or director. The director or officer against whom such charges have been brought shall be informed in writing of the charges prior to the meeting, and will have an opportunity at the meeting to be heard in person or by counsel, and to present witnesses; and, the person, or persons, bringing the charges will have the same opportunity.

 Article V. Faculty Advisor: WPC will have professor Alfredo Triff as the faculty advisor who may attend meetings and advise the organization.

 Article VI. Robert’s Rule of Order: Robert’s Rule of Order will be used as a guide for the officers in all situations not covered by provisions of the constitution.

Article VII. Officers:
Section 1: President. The President duties are generally as follows: Commence meetings at the time in which the assembly is to meet, to call order in the meetings, to conduct issues to be treated, and assign issues to be discussed in future meetings. The President should serve as a guide for thought-provoking conversations to flourish. The President must respect the right of all members to vote. Authenticate with his/her signature acts or agreements the club has. The President should supervise officers to make sure they are following their duties.
Section 2: Vice President. The Vice President’s most important duty is to assume authority when the President is unable to be at a meeting or when President has to step down from office. The Vice President also presides when the President is being removed from office and must follow the President’s duties as described in Article VI Section 1.
Section 3: Executive Secretary. The Secretary’s duties are generally keeping all the records of the organization, preparing the agenda, handling correspondences, sending notices of meeting to the members, and performing other administrative duties assigned by the WPC. The Secretary must keep record of everything that can be easily accessible e.g., the topics that are spoken about at the meetings.
Section 4: Treasurer. The Treasurer supervises incoming funds, securing funds, and the manner of how the funds are spent. Treasurer must keep a complete and up to date record of the funds pertaining to WPC. Treasurer must inform the President and/or Vice President before releasing funds for an activity. Treasurer must also inform the WPC members of how their fees are spent.

Article VIII. Meetings and Dues:
Section 1: Meetings will be held regularly at a time specified by WPC. WPC will regularly meet Mondays at 12:00 pm through 1:00 pm, and or Thursdays at 2:00 pm through 3:00 pm at an assigned classroom.
Section 2: There are no initiation fees.
Section 3: WPC will hold fundraising events to finance its activities; WPC members are suggested but not required to attend. If needed, a fee of less than $10.00 may be asked. Article IX. Amendments: Amendments to this constitution will be forwarded to the President in writing of submission to the members for vote. A 2/3 vote will suffice for adoption thereof, subject to approval by the Director of Student Life and the appropriate organizational council.