let's examine 4 possibilities:
A study and fail the test. Duty-bounded, we learn what's needed to pass the test) 1- because it's good to pass it (definitely better than failing) 2- because it proves something about oneself, i.e., resilience (a character trait).
B not study and pass the test. This is chancy, but the problem is that the world being neutral, hold unknown chances for and against you (more against oneself than for oneself, since we all die)
C not study and fail the test. Duty-bounded, we learn the importance of studying for passing a test (more expected than not in the world of probabilities), if not failing at least getting a low grade, otherwise 3.7gpa would be a breeze.
D study and pass the test. Duty-fulfilled, one reaffirms a deontological lemma, i.e., "I must pass the test"). One learns from A2 that it's better to study and fail than to not study and fail. On learns a valuable lesson:
duty is independent of gain or loss.